Sustainability reporting is done using different reporting frameworks that are prominent around the world. These are G4-Sustainability Reporting Principles presented by GRI, Communication on Progress (COP) prepared in accordance with the UN Global Compact, International Integrated Reporting Framework and Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP). .

Founded in 2000, CDP is a non-profit international non-governmental organization based in London. CDP conducts programs on climate change, water, forests and supply chain issues in order to invite the cooperation of institutional investors to increase corporate accountability regarding climate change and to increase awareness of global environmental problems. CDP’s climate change program aims to reduce businesses’ greenhouse gas emissions and climate change risk.

As of 2018, CDP, which is described as the most comprehensive environmental initiative globally, holds the world’s largest corporate climate change, water, forest and city sustainability risk data and voluntarily discloses this information to the public and investors.

These data collected on behalf of investors are presented to the public, business and investment markets with the help of reports prepared by CDP.

On the CDP platform, businesses are presented with a survey to explain the current situation, measures taken against risks and goals regarding water, climate change, supply chain and forest issues.

The question sets in the survey are grouped under three main headings:

  • company management in terms of climate change,
  • Management’s opinion regarding the risks and opportunities posed by climate change for the business
  • greenhouse gas emissions accounting.

The questions in these sections are grouped into five groups:

  1. Governance,
  2. Strategy,
  3. Goals and Initiatives,
  4. Risks and Opportunities
  5. By publicly disclosing Emission Data information, it has proven to have the largest environmental data set.

The data collected from businesses that agree to participate in the survey is scored according to the rating methodology developed by CDP. As a result of this scoring, which is made by assigning a letter grade from A to D, each year the highest performing businesses are included in the A list with their exemplary work.

In addition to the findings above, CDP 2018 Climate Change and Water Report also mentions that businesses need to make further developments regarding mechanisms related to climate change such as science-based targets and/or carbon pricing.

Businesses that respond to CDP and are rated are evaluated according to the special rating methodology determined by CDP.

The rating methodology consists of the following four levels. Businesses must reach a certain threshold at each level before moving to the next level.

  1. Disclosure: completeness of the business’s answers to the questions
  2. Awareness: evaluation of the effects of the business’s activities on the environment, people and ecosystem, and the effects of environmental risks on the business activities
  3. Management : environmental management of the business; actions, policies and strategies against environmental problems
  4. Leadership: whether the business follows best practice in environmental management.

Organizations that carry out these activities will be one step ahead in preventing or reducing the economic and technological pressures that will exist in the near future.